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The Implications Of The Protestant Reformation On Matters Of Church And State In The Period 1500-1700

Martin Luther initiated the Protestant Reformation by publishing his 95 theses in 1517. They revealed unorthodox ideologies concerning religion, catholicism, the church, and state in Europe during the 1500s. The State condemned them as heresy because of their opposition to Catholicism. In the wake of the Protestant Reformation and the widespread spread of religions in conflict with the Catholic churches, which resulted ultimately in the births of many religions now known as Christianity, a number of consequences were felt by the Catholic Church as well the State. These implications included those relating to social, cultural, political, economic, geographical and historical factors. The Protestant Reformation sheds light on the changes in values and morals that occurred in Europe after the Protestant Reformation.

The Protestant Reformation had many implications for church and government. One of them is the social element. Martin Luther’s ninety-five thesis, specifically thesis number forty-six, is the most important source for the social impact of the church and state. It states, “Christians will be taught not to spend money on indulgences unless it exceeds their needs.”

Luther’s efforts were also credited with a positive impact on Protestants. They became associated as both a means for social reform and religious reform. In contrast, the Catholic church was seen to be more focused on money than personal growth and spirituality. John Locke’s ‘Two Treatises of Government,’ his primary source, highlights the importance of freedom for a society to function. Locke emphasizes this in his passage: To understand political power and derive its original from, we need to consider what natural state all men exist in. That is, a perfect state of freedom. Locke was a writer in the 17th century who was heavily influenced and shaped by the Protestant Reformation. His work provides an insight into how the Reformation had a positive impact on society. After the Protestant Reformation many citizens began to hold different beliefs. Therefore, it became widely accepted that catholic church and government should be separate. Since the church was no longer the majority’s belief, they should no influence the political, judicial, or other aspects of state.

Reformation has had major implications on Church-State relations. One was the impact of political factors, which resulted in a separation, and a system of government free from catholic or religious influence. This stratification was emphasized in many primary and second sources that were written before the Reformation. Mark Goldie, who edited Locke’s political essays, declared in a secondary resource titled ‘Religion, Literature, and Politics: Post-Reformation England, that Locke believes that the civil authorities have no right to enforce religious conformity.’ This is consistent with Martin Luther’s ‘Two Kingdoms Doctrine,’ which argues that separation of state and church is needed to ensure both religious freedom and a political order throughout Europe. In order to keep the church dominant in Europe and negate the reformation ideologies, the Council of Trent was established during the Reformation. However, influential figures, such as Martin Luther and John Calvin who furthered the ideas of Luther, led to a continual development of these thoughts. John Calvin’s ideology is most evident in the book ‘Institutes of the Christian Religion’ where he discusses the theology of Protestantism. The best passage to highlight this is “All guilty by revolting against God, corrupting pure religious, either following general customs, or the impious approval of antiquity”. It can also be used to describe politics before the Reformation. Political and economic concerns had taken precedence over the growth and development of catholicism. Martin Luther’s Ninety Five Theses were published in Germany in 1517 and essentially started the Reformation. However, today, there are still political implications that affect the church and the state.

To understand the Reformation and its impact on both church and government, the geographic location is crucial. Martin Luther was often referred to as the person who started the Reformation because he used his writings to criticize the church’s actions and how the catholic religion, and therefore the state, were now driven by the money instead of the will God. Martin Luther’s 32nd Thesis, which states “Those who think they are certain of salvation because they possess indulgence letters, will be eternally condemned, along with their teachers”, is a prime example of this. It highlights that the Catholic Church is driven by money, not scripture or apostolic teachings. This idea was further emphasized by R.N Swanson in his secondary source titled Indulgences for Late Medieval England. More specifically, the excerpt titled “The power to pardon made these indulgences more popular than other associations” reveals the fact that European state and church would rather sell-out catholicism and teach the act repentance.

Luther’s Ninety-Five Theses first spread in Wittenberg when the printing press was invented. Luther taught there at the time. Due to the basic structure of Europe at the time, Luther’s teachings and reformed ideas were easily spread across Europe. The geographical structure of Europe and its impact on the spread of Luther’s teachings would have prevented his influence from spreading so quickly. Instead, restless citizens were forced to accept the Catholic Church dominating Europe out fearing public backlash, as well as the harsh, archaic legal system in place during that time period. Due to the large acceptance of Ninety-Five thesis, the geographic location of Europe provides insight to the idea that reformist ideas were already developing. All it took was a powerful figure like Luther to help develop them into an actual movement.

The Reformation had a significant impact on church and state due to the historical aspect. This was more specifically the length of time that the Catholic Church had been united with the state, and its impact on citizens. Catholicism being the religion of the state, anyone who preached another religion or followed one was condemned as a heretic and often punished with death. As the state’s religion, Catholicism was the dominant religion in Europe. Those who followed or preached any other religion were condemned as heretics and often executed. Martin Luther’s 37th thesis is the best example of the historical fear of God that was the basis for the reasoning. This was amplified by the unification church and government. The passage reads: “Any Christian, living or deceased, can participate in all of the blessings Christ and the church have to offer; this is done by God. Even without indulgences”. Carter Lindberg also emphasizes the importance of this historical implication, and tries to uncover devout cats fear of change as well as the wrath of God. This idea best highlights in the excerpt

In secular penal practice, a punishment could be’redemptioned’ for money. In religious practice, this could mean that a meal could replace a fast or the pilgrimage the cost.

Indulgences were sold to fund both church and government. However, it had a cost. It essentially undermined the legitimacy of the catholic Church and the State. The Protestant Reformation brought about new religious freedom and political systems as a result.

The last factor that affected the church and the state in the 1500s-1700s was the economic impact. The political impact was the final cause of the huge economic effect on the church and the state. This is because their causes and effects were in close proximity. Martin Luther criticized the selling of indulgences as a way to raise funds prior to Reformation for the then unified state and church. Luther’s 28th Indulgence, in which he states, “It can be said that greed and avarice are increased when money is placed in a money box, but when the Church intercedes the result is entirely in God’s hand”. Luther’s criticism of the catholic Church’s indulgence sale is highlighted in Volker Leppin & Timothy Wengert’s secondary sources ‘Sources against and for the Posting the Ninety Five Theses’, specifically the passage.

I was a young doctor of theology, and a preacher at the time. So, when indulgences began to be sold in 1517, for a most shameful profit, I started to discourage the people.

It is clear that as time passes, he has gained more insight. He still opposes the sale and purchase of indulgences.

So, it is clear that the Protestant Reformation in Europe and its consequences had a profound impact on both the church as well the state between the years 1500 and 1700. Their effects were most pronounced when it came to the historical, social, geographical, economic, and political aspects of European culture. Reformation brought about a shift in morals among Europeans and their government. The separation of church from state was a result of this.

Theatre In The Era Of Elizabethan England

Elizabeth I (1533-1603) was the daughter of Anne Boleyn, wife of Henry VIII. Elizabeth the 1st (1533-1603) was born to King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. Her most notable victory is the one she achieved in 1588 against the Spanish Armada. Elizabeth, the beloved Queen of England, was actually third in line after her older and younger siblings. Both of her siblings died young, which forced Elizabeth to rule. In order to demonstrate her rightful place as queen, she would often be very reserved when discussing her mother who had been called “the Great Whore”.

She was a young, popular monarch who used her femininity for her benefit. She was more confident as she aged, and took additional precautions in order to stay the center of attention for her pursuers. Her positive attitude to the arts and humanities was evident when she became president. England’s economy flourished under her reign and allowed the arts to grow. England was an unclean place. Raw sewage stained the city streets. A foul stench filled the air. If a person survived beyond the age of 12, their average life expectancy was just over 60 years.

Elizabethan England was a violent period that gave birth to one of the most notorious eras in Theatre. Shakespeare was the most famous playwright of all time, but also men like Christopher Marlow were a major part of this period. The theatre was a place where new ideas, thoughts and styles were explored. It was the printing press that had the greatest impact on the theatre of this period.

The people were fascinated by the theatre and this is not surprising since many of the Elizabethan Classics are still performed today, including ‘Romeo and Juliet’ and ‘A Midsummer Night’s Dream’. Hierarchical companies were formed. Sharers were actors with a foothold in the company. They would share profits collectively. In the past, ‘hirelings’ were paid weekly and boys actively portraying females would be called ‘apprentices.’ They received a pittance compared with their fellow actors. They would then specialize in roles they were familiar with.

Admiral’s Men Theatre Company and Lord Chamberlain’s Men Theatre Company are two of most well-known theatres. Around 30 to 40 new performances were presented by companies every year. This demand led to playwrights writing more plays every year. These works were rarely published. The playwright would not be credited with the publication of his work once the play was completed.

The Great Depression In The USA

Table of Contents



The Great Depression and its impact



The Great Depression is the worst economic recession in American history. The economy had been experiencing a recession for the last two month and a decreasing GDP. Following the Wall Street crash it went into depression. This decline was caused by many factors, including high consumer debt, poorly regulated markets, and a lack of new high-growth industries. People were already feeling uncertain about the future after the U.S. Stock Exchange crash. Due to the crash, the U.S. currency value had decreased causing it to remain in depression.

CausesWell this economic decline had many causes, but Wall Street’s stock market collapse was the main one. This caused the economy to be unable pay off its debt. There are also other factors, like the lack high growth industries and the high rate in consumer debt. The U.S. was experiencing rapid growth and its wealth doubled from 1920 to 1929.

Stocks were the place where people acted recklessly, putting their savings, whether they be millionaires or janitors. The stock market experienced rapid growth in 1929. The stock market was inflated by the fact that production had dropped and unemployment increased. Wages in that period were low. Consumer credit was on the rise, food prices were falling and there was a drought.

During summer 1929 the American economy experienced a serious recession. Consumer spending was slowing and the unsold stock began to build up. This led to a further reduction in factory output. Stock prices rose and were at an all-time high by the end of 1929, unjustified by future earnings.

Impact of Great DepressionAfter most investors became nervous and began to sell overpriced stocks, what followed is what many had feared. The stock markets crashed. In one day, 12.9 millions shares were traded. Following another wave of Wall Street panic, millions of shares lost their value and those who purchased them “on margin” had to be wiped off.

In the aftermath of the stock-market crash, as consumer confidence disappeared, factories and businesses began to reduce production and fire their employees. Those who were fortunate enough to stay employed saw their wages fall and their purchasing power decrease. In the aftermath of the stock-market crash, when consumer confidence vanished, factories and other businesses began to slow down production and fire their workers. Those who remained employed saw their wages fall and buying power decrease. The Gold Standard was a global standard that spread the financial woes in the United States all over the world.

Despite assurances made by Herbert Hoover as well as other leaders in the country that the crises would end quickly, they continued to worsen during the next three-year period. In 1930, there were 4 million unemployed Americans; this number increased to 6 millions in 1931. In the meantime, industrial production in the United States dropped by half and the number of homeless Americans increased.

Farmers were not able to harvest their crop and left them rotting on the fields, while others were starving. The banking panic began in 1930 when investors began to lose confidence in their banks. They demanded cash deposits and forced the banks to liquidate the loans.

Hoover’s administration attempted to provide government loans in such a situation, hoping that banks would lend money to businesses and rehire employees. He believed that government shouldn’t intervene in economic affairs and it wasn’t their responsibility to create employment or give financial relief to citizens.

Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected President in 1932 when the United States was still in the midst of the Great Depression. Inauguration-day, each state of the United States had ordered all remaining banking institutions to close. The U.S. treasury did not have sufficient cash to pay government employees. He radiated calm optimism and declared that the only thing to fear was fear itself.

In order to deal with the economic problems of the country, he took immediate action. He announced a four-day holiday during which Congress would be able to pass reform legislation. All banks were required to close for this period and only those that had been deemed sound could reopen. The President also started a radio series in which he talked directly to the people. This “Fireside Chat” helped to restore the confidence of the public.

During his first 100-day term, the Roosevelt administration passed legislation to stabilize agricultural and industrial production, create employment, and stimulate economic recovery. Roosevelt also wanted to reform the banking system. He created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation for depositors to have a safe account and stability in the economy. The Securities and Exchange Commission was established to regulate and protect the stock market and to stop abuses that led up to the 1929 Crash.

RecoveryAfter early signs that the economy was recovering in 1933’s Spring, the economy continued improving for the next 3 years. During this time, real GDP growth averaged 9 percent annually. The Federal Reserve increased its reserve requirements in 1937. This led to a severe recession. While the economy improved again in 192038, this second contraction reversed many production and employment gains and prolonged the Great Depression’s effects until the end.

In Europe, the Depression had fueled extremist political movements. Most notably Adolf Hitler’s Nazi Regime in Germany. In 1939, Germany’s aggression caused war in Europe. The WPA focused on strengthening the United States military infrastructure, while maintaining its neutrality.

While the Great Depression has ended, its effects still can be felt today. The unemployment rate in the United States is currently 9.1 percent. From 1931 to 1942, the annual rates ranged between 9.9 percent and 24.9 percent. The peak level of unemployment has been well below the Great Depression’s peak. We have benefited from some lessons learned during the Great Depression by implementing automatic government stabilisers to the economy. This has prevented the devastating effects of a credit crunch.

“We Can Do It” By J. Howard Miller As An Iconic Motivational Picture Of 20th Century

J. Howard Miller is responsible for one of history’s most iconic posters, “We Can Do It”. During World War II many men were forced by their employers to leave the country they loved to fight overseas. During World War II, women were left to do the work of men and to support families and the economy. The poster is based on the 1942 photo of Naomi Parker Fraley in a polka dotted bandana in Alameda California. The poster shows a woman with similar features to Naomi showing off her biceps and raising her arms on a yellow backdrop. It also has the phrase, “We Can Do It”. This paper discusses what this image means, its significance and value for public culture.

Hariman & Lucaites’ (2007, 27-29), paper describes iconic images as images that are widely shared in media, represent universal meanings and emotions, are recognizable, and are understood to be a symbol of a significant historical event. This image is a perfect example of an iconic image because it is well-known and widely shared in many media. It has a clear message that everyone can understand and is widely accepted.

The background of an image can affect its original meaning. In the Practices of Looking, Marita Cartwright and Lisa Sturken (2009, 9), said that “a single picture can serve multiple purposes, be used in different settings and have different meanings for different people”. The US government encouraged military manufacturers to increase production of weapons and army products after the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbour (Herold,2018). The atmosphere in large factories, however, was tense due to the conflict between workers and the union administration (Herold 2018). A campaign was started to reduce the tension and boost the morale and spirit of all workers in the factory (Herold 2018). In 1942, Westinghouse Electric Company created a series propaganda posters in order to boost the morale and encourage all factory workers to continue their hard work. (Herold 2018). During that period, Westinghouse Electric Company created similar posters to “We Can Do It”, such as “Together We Can Do It!” , 1998).

Only in 1980s did the poster become a symbol and a huge hit with the public. The poster is remade today and has been parodied a lot. This image is still used by many advertisers to promote products. The image was used on clothing, vending machine, mugs and refrigerator magnets. Clorox used the image in 2007 to advertise their household cleaners. The image was also used in the Captain America: The First Avenger film (Landekic & Albinson 2011). It was also used for political campaigns with Hillary Clinton and Sarah Palin (Herold 2018).

The poster had another problem. Until recent years, it was unclear who the person on poster was. The woman on cover was initially thought to be Geraldine Hoff-Doyle, but after some investigation it was discovered that she was actually Naomi Parker Fraley. It is a good example of how quickly public opinion and image can change. The meanings behind the images are lost in the blur. It is crucial to always think critically and understand what the message behind an image means.

After the poster’s re-discovery, it became a tool to promote feminist activism. The image was interpreted as “a symbol of female empowerment” by many (Hall, 2006). The “we” was meant to be “we women”, and to unite women in their fight for equality and rights (Hall 2006). The meaning of the phrase changed dramatically between 1943 and 1980. Jeremiah Axelrod, History Professor, pointed out that this image combined masculinity and femininity. It had a macho body language and composition (Oostdijk & Valenta 2006). This was the image that attracted feminists to it.

This image has become iconic due to its wide recognition and many copies. It is important because it later became a symbol for women’s empowerment and feminism. It represents the strength of women. This image encouraged them to not give up and pursue their dreams. It was the inspiration for the women’s right revolution. It changed the view of women in Western society and how they contributed to it. Women in World War II proved they were capable of doing hard jobs while supporting their country. Their brothers, fathers and sons were fighting for their countries abroad. Women needed someone to look up at and to emulate.

The Boston Siege: American Revolution War

The Siege of Boston had a significant impact on the American Revolution War. This long period of resistance by the American colonies showed their strength and willingness to fight for what they believed in. During April 1775 while the battles were being fought at Lexington, Concord, and Boston, the colonial army, led General William Heath, was closing on the outer outskirts. The number of insurgents increased after the command had been passed to Artemas.

General Thomas Gage led the British army. Once he saw the colonial troops outside Charlestown, Gage ordered the army to retreat. This agreement was harmonious as long as there were no civilians in the way. This agreement was described in “After the Siege”: A social history of Boston 1775-1800: “At a meeting held on April 22, between Gage’s officials and those of the town, both parties agreed that women and their children, along with all of their belongings, should be able to travel without any danger, while male residents would be allowed to leave if they swore not to take up arms and fight against the King and his troops. General Gage promised to protect civilians who wished to remain. A town meeting was held the next morning, and the citizens agreed on the terms …”[1]

Boston Neck and Charlestown were under American control, but the Americans were unable blockade Boston Harbor. It was decided that the American Navy would not be mentioned at this stage of the conflict. New Hampshire’s, Connecticut’s and Rhode Island’s militias joined the Massachusetts militias. Both armies had been strengthening their fighting capabilities and defense systems for over a month.

Admiral Samuel Graves’ fleet, which was based in Boston Harbor, provided the only supply for the British army. A British warship arrived on May 25, 1775 with 6000 soldiers and Major General William Howe. By June of 1775, British troops, with enough reinforcements, planned to take advantage of a weakening colonial defense by setting up occupation establishments on Bunker Heights and Dorchester Hills. Hearing about the British plans for Bunker Hill, General Artemas Ward sent Colonel William Prescott in to build a fortified Bunker Hill. This was done to disarray European operations.

According to Battle of Bunker Hill’s book, the building earth fortifications took place on 16/17th of June 1775.

The future battle was shaped by the debate about the construction. Breeds Hill was chosen because it was closer to Boston but in a less advantageous area. Bunker Hill only had minor earthworks completed. The British troops were surprised to see the new fortifications during the dawn of June 17. HMS Lively of the Royal Navy, a post-ship in the Royal Navy, opened fire on the redoubt. This was followed by more than 100 cannons and artillery from warships and other ships. British troops were ready to launch an attack on Charlestown late in the afternoon. The British, despite having repelled the first and second attacks, were able, in the third and final attack, to force the colonial army into retreating back into Cambridge. The attack did not end in total victory, as the British suffered a heavy loss and the colonialists gained confidence. The siege of Bunker was in a state of gridlock after the Battle Bunker. There were few insurgents. In an attempt to prevent a major conflict between both sides, the Continental Congress sent the Olive Branch Petition to London. In September, King George III rejected the petition.

George Washington was a key figure in the American Revolution War. Washington was appointed Commander-in Chief of the Continental Army after attending the Continental Congress at Philadelphia. He then headed to Boston. Washington was given the order to build an army that could face down the British. Washington, despite being away from his wife for so long, wrote that he would not feel any pain. […] The unhappiness I feel will come from the anxiety you’ll experience being alone.

George Washington arrived at Cambridge on the 2nd of July. New England’s Middle Colonies arrived in Virginia, as did reinforcements from New England. Some of these were armed Kentucky or Pennsylvania Rifles.

[1] Cf. :



Social Structure Change As A Root Cause Of The Salem Witch Trial Hysteria Of 1692

In the past, we have seen a few episodes of extreme extremism that are not understandable. Some cases are strongly related to a culture, while others are the result of someone or something more powerful, such as someone with influence or power. Salem is one example that stands out. In 1692 dozens, mostly women of that town, were executed for believing in witchcraft. Many primary sources are biased, distorted, and inaccurate. Historians disagree over the cause of the madness because there is no objective information. However, most evidence indicates that a change in the social structure occurring at the same time was the primary cause of hysteria.

Salem, like many other towns in New England, had Puritan churches and a democracy that determined who was elected, appointed as schoolmasters, or discussed any dull matter. As the population of Salem grew, these settlements changed. The new settlers were converted to the puritan belief system, which held that they were the “elect” child of God. The church membership grew dramatically as a result of this growth. The fact that many of them did not share the values and ideals of their original settlers led to a rapid division between “elect” members and the rest. This is an important distinction because this is the very first time the purity of religion has been diluted. As a result, many people think that God’s will is being contested. This disrespect for God’s Word creates hatred for many members of this community.

Salem faced a moral crisis, apart from its population growth. As the community grew, it created a divide between the people who lived in Salem Town and the residents of Salem Village. There is a difference in the economies, but it was really a dispute over lifestyles, not about which was better. It is clear that the accused are separated from the accusers when you look at a map. Salem was a village where moral disagreements were growing. Each side started to move closer to the people who agreed to their point of view. As a result of the unity in views, residents began to create smaller communities. The land had become abandoned and unclaimed by the time of the trial. It was impossible to be neutral in this internal split, because simply being on one side made your morals questionable.

Salem’s mass hysteria was also influenced by the increasing prominence of women in local communities. Although women in puritan societies were granted rights not available anywhere else, they still suffered harsh treatment. There was a distinct difference in the treatment of women and men. In court cases and in this case, “witch’ accusations, simple responses were considered grave offenses. When you’re accused but do not know the perpetrator, it is like admitting guilt. It meant that men were superior to women. Marriage was a condition for women to be allowed to own property, conduct business, and sign contracts. As a result, many people in the community started to be condescending towards women when their husbands were kind or died. The majority of those accused were women. Citizens viewed any change in their rigid structure as unacceptable, particularly if it altered the gender roles.

In the new society, a single accusation is enough to put these women or men on trial. Puritan culture at that time was adamant about the existence of Satan. Seven men and 19 woman were executed for witchcraft during the month-long trials, and over 200 people were also arrested. No one was burned alive at the stake like in European witchcraft trials, but they were all hanged. Salem was a case of ignorance and puritanism that is unique in US history. The purpose of this book is to remind the public that structural change does not always have to be met with negativity, but should instead be met openly.

Wordsworth And Blake: The Plight Of Mankind

William Wordsworth’s and William Blake’s distress at the state of humanity in the early nineteenth-century was shared by both. In their respective poems “Lines Written Early Spring,” (lines 5-24), and “London,” they present a vision of the problems facing man that is both distinct but also unified. They use different poetic devices to convey a similar meaning. Both poets use their mood to demonstrate how man’s struggle is deep, despite the vast differences in tone between each other. Blake and Wordsworth both use rhyme and meter to link man with another entity. The poems differ greatly in style and content, but they are both addressing the same issue. Wordsworth sets the mood immediately with his “Lines”. He uses peaceful imagery and a pleasant setting to set the scene. The reader finds himself in a grove of trees where the author is observing Nature. The birds are “hopping and playing” (13), they “seemed to be a thrill with pleasure” (16), while “the budding leaves spread out/To catch that breezy breeze” (17). He uses the imagery of serenity, joy and peace to illustrate the darker side of humanity without actually mentioning it. His tone is not broken by his attempts. By avoiding to say exactly what “man” has made of mankind (8) he is allowing the reader to create their own image. This is in stark contrast to his peaceful surroundings. Blake, meanwhile, uses tragic and harsh imagery that conveys the harshness and tragedy of the world. Blake uses harsh imagery instead of Wordsworth using soft imagery. Blake uses infants crying twice (6,15) and writes “the hapless Soldier’s Sigh/Runs down Palace Walls in Blood” (11). The words he uses evoke images of oppression and being ruled. The ruling class has “chartered” or sanctioned the streets and river. This shackles the minds of working-class men. In the last lines of the poem, he juxtaposes’marriage,’ with ‘hearse.’ This is to show that all that was once happiness and life now has become death and sadness. Blake, unlike Wordsworth, makes the point very clear. He uses vivid imagery such as the “black’ning” church (10). This line has multiple meanings. The word ‘blacking’ can be used both in transitive and non-transitive forms. In the line above, the church is blackening and acting as an agent of blackening to the people. Blake’s world is a place where the church or those in charge of the church aren’t doing their job. The church, as a symbol of elitism, is now covered with the black soot that comes from oppression. Wordsworth incorporates God and His role into his poem. In “Lines,” the man and nature are tied together. Wordworth’s poem, “Lines,” shows that every element is enjoying being. When he wrote in the final stanza “If This Belief From Heaven be Sent/If Such is Nature’s Holy Plan/Have Not I Reason to Lament/What Man Has Made of Man?” (21), He was saying that even though man is supposed to live as Nature does, it is not happening, thus his sadness. The plan is not being followed. Blake and Wordsworth both express that God is disobeyed in their poems. This disobedience is what is causing the discord. Wordsworth shows more than that by describing Nature as enjoying her own being. Personification is another way he shows the relationship between man, Nature and man. He says that “…everyflower/Enjoys breathing” (11) and that branches “…spread their fan/To capture the breeze” (17). The earlier statement that Nature was connected to the “human soul that through [him] ran” (6) is now being shown as a way of showing that there is also a small human soul within every movement and act of Nature. He’s writing about how the world should be. Then he says that it isn’t. Blake, however, is more blunt about the reality of things and doesn’t bother to think about how they should be. He achieves this by connecting the working class with the oppressive upper-class elitist institution. Blake capitalizes certain words strategically in his poem. Blake capitalizes only certain words in his poem. By capitalizing the words, he shows subtly how man and institution are at odds with each other. Both poets use the idea of linking man to another entity to illustrate a problem within the system. Blake and Wordsworth are also using their language to express a crisis in the human race. Blake uses complex language to show the complexity of problems. He wants to show a world that is contaminated and corrupted by the rapidly industrializing economies. He uses lines that convey a complex, terrible idea in only two words. Another example is “mind-forged menacles”, an expression which has multiple meanings. He wants the reader to think and to not take his words lightly. He uses stark, violent metaphors. His lines seem to be rushed and move at a rapid pace. It is a reflection of his feelings about the plight of man. It’s violent, it’s hard, and it continues to grow rapidly. Wordsworth’s simple language shows that the issue we face is basic. He uses basic language to create very simple images. There is only one word longer than 2 syllables. Wordsworth is not trying to make the reader see a complex problem. He wants them to visualize it in their own way. The poet doesn’t want a complex image. He wants simple words. He is trying to convey that man is out of sync with his roots. That is a straightforward idea that is easily expressed. The roots of the poem are that man must enjoy life and not change it in any way. Both poems share a similar ABAB meter scheme, as well as iambic pentameter. In “London”, the alternate rhymes serve to maintain the monotony, predictability and repetition of the suffering circle in the city. The meter used in this poem is inconsistent. It begins as iambic, but then shifts to the less common trochaic, at line 9, and returns to the iambic, for the final lines. The purpose of this is to show that the world isn’t in harmony. Blake has made a great effort to illustrate ‘how the world is,’ but here he tries to demonstrate that it’s not as it should be. The way things are, they don’t really make any sense. Wordsworth follows Blake’s strategy with “Lines”. Each verse has the same rhyme scheme and is written in pentameter iambic. However, the last line in every stanza in iambic is one foot shorter. The reader feels a bit dissatisfied. He thinks that something is missing. Wordsworth and Blake do this to make the reader aware that something is not right. Both poets intended to leave the reader feeling dissatisfied, or even frustrated, and encourage them to think about the poem. Both Blake and Wordsworth use subtle and sometimes overt poetic devices to make their point. Although they approach it in different ways, they use the same means to convey their ideas. Each uses different tactics to convey his message.

How Jourdon Anderson Responded To His Former Master’s Letter

Former slaves, after the American Civil War and the collapse of slavery in the United States, sought new opportunities for economic growth. Many plantation-owners begged their former enslaved slaves to come back. Jourdan A. Anderson, a former enslaved, answered his former master with satirical remarks. Former slaves were taught to use clever misdirection to hide their true feelings. This account is reflected in his letter. His witty tone hides his views on freedom and exploitation. It also gives a glimpse of Anderson’s character.

P.H. Anderson offered Jourdon Anderson (his former slave) a job in exchange of money, food clothing and housing. Anderson did not accept the job but instead asked that his former boss pay back any wages owed by him. Anderson’s former master asked him to reveal the anger that led to his enslavement. This showed the South had never really surrendered. African Americans believed that freedom was equal under the laws. However, many whites preferred to define African Americans’ freedom as being free of servitude. Anderson illustrates this in a letter: “As far as my freedom that you claim I can have, it is not possible to achieve on that score .” Many whites believed that even after slavery was abolished, they could still control former slaves. According to them, the social hierarchy was unchanged. Many African Americans remained treated as if they were slaves, although their titles changed to freedmen. Many whites believed the 13th Amendment to be insignificant. Anderson subtly states that the United States government grants Anderson freedom, not his former boss.

Anderson continues by addressing the wages that his wife and he should receive, “less clothes and their three doctor visits” (p.2). This ironic statement is meant to show the degrading and humiliating treatment that they received. Anderson realizes that his request for compensation will not be granted. He wants to make it clear that even he is human. The elegance and hospitality of the old South was at African Americans’ expense.

Sexual exploitation of women, especially adolescents, was commonplace in the old south. Rape, brutality, and violence were common in the old South. Anderson says that he is willing to “starve and even die” rather than see his girls put down by the violent and wickedness displayed by their young masters. (p.2). He criticizes the actions of his former master, but he does so in a way that demonstrates his character. He recognizes his superiority and uses that to exert power over his former boss.

Jourdan has the ability to write in a satirical manner because of his experience as a former slave. Anderson does not use harsh or abusive language to his former boss, but condemns brutality with great force. The 13th Amendment is responsible for Anderson’s freedom to express himself. His writing has a satirical, patronizing tone. A tone that used to carry consequences. The letter is a well-written example of freedom and exploitation. It also shows his character.

Similarities And Differences Between Feudalism In Japan And In Europe: Samurai Vs Knights

Both civilizations had been fragmented for centuries before feudalism was established in Medieval Europe (600-1450 CE) and Japan. Europe had become vulnerable to invasions from all directions following the collapse of Roman Empire. Japan, meanwhile, was long a clan-based country. Both feudal societies shared many similarities, such as their stabilizing effect and similar hierarchical structures. The militaristic aspect of feudalism was very different, with knights and samurai being two of the most striking examples. It was a central and powerful government that ruled Europe over hundreds of years. The Roman Empire had a powerful and large military that repelled invaders. Invaders like the Huns or the Goths, who were unsure what to do, took advantage of the chaos and divided lands to take them over. The feudal order created a single ruler who would control the people through a hierarchy. The peasants were expected to work for a manor and support the owner, the monarch or those who protected the manor. Japan, however, has a long-standing tradition of clans that are independent. They had a central authority with the feudal government. The shogun could oversee the entire civilization and allow them to work together to advance as a group instead of focusing on conquering more land. The European system had a monarch at its top, either a king or a queen. The Japanese system also had an emperor as its monarch. In reality, he was there only to show off, because people believed he had divine qualities. Samurai placed the shogun as the leader. The nobles sat beneath the monarchs in both cultures. Next, I will describe the samurai. Under the European knights, there were peasants working at the manors. The merchants were regarded as more important than common laborers. The opposite is seen in Japan. In Europe the difference was less pronounced, but still very evident. Japanese people believed that merchants were inferior to laborers because the latter worked long hours for little profit and the former simply bought someone else’s labor. The differences between samurai and knights in feudalistic times are fascinating. Both had the same purpose: to protect people from external threats. They were, however, a very, very distinct pair of people. In Europe, the knights of Europe were merely that – knights. They weren’t always literate and polite. Instead, they were strong, adventurous, and oftentimes, only a few words literate. In Japan, the samurai had to possess more than strength to earn the title. Samurai were often literate, and had training in the fine arts. Knights were employed by their employers through contracts. When a contract ended with a lord, a rival would often buy the knight at a higher cost. They were just mercenaries and worked for whoever paid the most. Samurai felt a duty to help the rulers, not because of a legal obligation, but simply because that was the thing they thought to be right. Both cultures’ major religions affected the way samurai and knights fought. In Europe, Christianity was the dominant religion, and it strictly prohibited suicide. Knights fought bravely but would retreat if necessary. Samurai did not have a religion that forbade suicide. Seppuku is the act in which one kills himself by tearing out his guts using a knife. This made the Japanese army more violent and deadly than their European counterparts. Though the names of the two systems were the same (600 to 1450 BC in Europe and Japan), they were very different. They are similar, but they’re not the same.

The Positive And Negative Effects Of The California Gold Rush On Westward Expansion

California Gold Rush 1849 was both a positive and a negative event for westward expansion. The 1849 Gold Rush led to the westward expansion of California.

California became a state as a result. Discovering gold sparked a rush of immigration into the West, which led to boomtowns in places like San Francisco. Due to the rapid increase of population, it was possible for the United States continue its westward expansion and add California as another state. California was transformed from a tribal Mexican, Native American, and Native American territory into a state in the US as people migrated west to search for gold. Gold was discovered and increased populations led to increased demand and stimulated the economy, which led to development of international trade networks and improvements in money. Money from gold rush was used to fund the Transcontinental Railroad that opened up a few year after the Gold Rush. It allowed people easy travel between east and western states. The 1849 Gold Rush facilitated the expansion of the West. The large number of immigrants to the west caused the gold to gradually decrease. Only a small group of people became rich as a result. This led to a slowdown in the expansion of western society due to the fact that the middle class and local workers were poor. It created a hierarchy of social classes that slowed economic and government development. Despite initial success, the gold rush led to an instability in the monetary value of silver and gold. Hyper inflation followed as the economy started to fall apart. California was hit by financial difficulties, which caused hardships for its residents, and had a negative influence on westward growth.

Manifest Destiny, which was a concept that promoted westward expansion, also aided the killing of Native Americans or the expulsion of them from their territories. The rapid decline in Native American populations, though often viewed as a negative, actually helped westward expansion. The US expanded their territory in California relatively easily in the years after the Gold Rush. While the decline in Native American numbers may have had an impact on the region’s population, rapid immigration to the area from the east quickly filled the void.

California Gold Rush was not only bad for Californians and its economy. The “California Dream”, however, was not shared by all groups. Native Americans in California during Gold Rush suffered unimaginable hardships. There were also issues of racism and prejudice that immigrants, especially of Spanish and Chinese origin, experienced when they arrived in California with the hope of making money. Discrimination wasn’t so prevalent at the beginning, but it increased over time as the gold became scarcer.

The Gold Rush of 1849, although it aided America in its westward expansion by removing Native Americans, stimulating the economy and increasing the population, had some negative effects, including the lack of gold, instability of the currency and the decline of the economy. Gold Rush aided westward growth.

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