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Category: Free Essays Samples on History

Reverend Hale’s Evolution In “The Crucible” By Arthur Miller

How does a trial change a religious priest into a man removed from the power structure of a small town? The Crucible sees Reverend Hale sent to Salem in order to combat an alleged outbreak witchcraft. The play opens with Hale, a confident man who just cured a witchcraft epidemic in Beverly. The play continues and he is forced to leave the court system due to the inequalities he encounters. Reverend Hale, although a confident man when he arrives in Salem, begins to lose his religious convictions as he sees the injustices of the Salem theocracy.

Reverend Hale is arrogant about his ability, when he arrives in Salem. Reverend Hale arrived in Salem after he had recently treated a witchcraft case in Beverly. This success “…never raised an eyebrow about Lucifer’s many-faced lieutenants. Reverend Hale has become overconfident in religious beliefs as a result of his confidence in the existence or devil. Reverend Parris of Salem is Hale’s first encounter. Hale has a stack filled with books. Hale replied, “They must” (36). Reverend Hale’s books are both literal and figuratively heavy. Literally, they are heavy and rich with information about witches. Figuratively, they are “weighted as authority” in that they can punish anyone who is believed to be a witch. A variety of answers are offered: “I was with Goody Hawkins!”, “I was with Goody Bibber”, “I was with Goody Booth” (48). Hale shouts joyously, “Glory God!” They are free, it is broken!” (48). Hale now believes all the girls are telling him the truth. Hale digs deeper into Salem’s case to uncover the lies. Reverend Hale finds himself separating from his core beliefs, as Abigail Williams spins her web. Hale is compelled to investigate Elizabeth Proctor’s witchcraft accusation in court when Abigail makes it clear that Elizabeth Proctor is being accused of witchcraft. To find evidence of witchcraft, he orders John to recite The Ten Commandments. This is a man who disobeys Reverend Parris’ religious practices. Elizabeth responds when John fails to pronounce all ten of the commandments by saying, “delicately”: “Altery, John.” (67). Reverend Hale discovers that Elizabeth is a holy woman, and does not believe in witchcraft. Reverend Hale is suspicious of Elizabeth’s apparent innocence. In fact, Abigail lies about Elizabeth to fuel Hale’s doubtfulness of the court.

Hale’s religious beliefs are ruined when the court starts executing the witches accused if they don’t confess. John confesses to his affair in court, revealing the injustice. Elizabeth answers the question of whether John ever had an affair. Elizabeth’s lies are heard by the judges and she is sentenced to death. Hale intercedes and states that “I may not shut my mind to it any more-private vengeance works through this testimony!” (114). Hale states, “I may shut my conscience to it no more-private vengeance is working through this testimony!” (114). “I denounce the proceedings and I am leaving this court!” (120). Act IV shows Hale feeling guilty. “There is blood everywhere!” Can you see the blood on my forehead !!”(131? He starts to tell the accused lies to save his life.

After discovering the truth of the Salem Theocracy’s injustice, Hale breaks away from it with great determination. The play shows Reverend Hale transform from being a strict minister into a man who is deeply opposed to the Salem proceedings. Hale believes it is his fault that so few people have died during his watch, which leads to him being at the end Miller’s play. Classic dramas have a tendency to make such regrets. Antigone is an example of this. King Creon, who enforces unfair laws, refuses to bury Antigone’s father, a war hero. His hubris causes the death and removal of his Kingship. Many more people would have died if Hale had not been so observant as to avoid uncovering the court’s injustices. Miller says that power is important because it allows people to make right decisions and has the ability to influence others.

Report On Slavery: Creole Case

The Creole, a slave ship carrying 19 and 135 servants, set sail on October 7, 1841. Madison Washington, who was on deck when the ship approached Bahamas, called for other slaves to resist him. Washington led by other slaves, 18 slaves took part in the takeover of the ship. The British colony of Bahamas, Nassau was their destination. This was a slave revolt according to international law. The crime fell under local jurisdiction. The Creole arrived at Nassau, and the British authorities detained the 18 slave rebellion participants. Local British residents demanded that the British release the remaining slaves from the ship.

How much, if anything, were these violent incidents? Washington was the one who started the Creole revolution. This led to violence. Washington overtook a deck with his slaves by placing them in a forward-facing hold. Washington and 17 other soldiers used violence to overwhelm the crew of the captainaEUR ™ and take over their ranks. In the end, they killed one slave trader. The uprising also injured the captain on board the ship. Other crew members sustained minor injuries, but they survived. The outcome was not good. Washington, along with eighteen other conspirators, were taken by the British to be held under charges for mutiny. The Admiralty Court of Nassau ordered that Washington and the other 17 slaves be released. After taking control the slave trading vessel and sailing to the Bahamas, 128 slaves were freed. This led to tension between American and British Colonial forces. The number of slaves freed by the Creole revolt made it the most successful slave rebellion.

How did it impact sectional difference? Sectional differences were influenced by the Creole case. The Americans wanted freedom and had just released Amistad Africans. They were outraged that British had liberated Creole Blacks. The United States demanded that compensation be paid. The British actions were criticized by common citizens who claimed that they encouraged mutiny, murder and other wrongdoings. Britain did free the slaves. This raised concerns from Southern planters that Britain would be a safe haven to runaway slaves. The American South believed slavery was necessary to maintain its income source and financial situation. Therefore, they supported slavery’s establishment. In 1839, the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society was established. They were particularly concerned about American slavery.

What connections do you see between the Amistad and the incident you’re researching? This case was very similar to the Amistad, a Spanish slave ship. In 1839, 53 slaves had been illegally taken from Africa by the Amistad. They were transported from Havana through another Cuban port. Cinque, a slave of the ship’s crew, led the rebellion against Spanish authorities and the ship was finally found in Connecticut. Due to Spain’s prohibition of slave trade in 1820 Spain, the Supreme Court ruled for the release of slaves. The Creole was a legal slave purchase in Virginia that was being legally transported from another American port. The British in Nassau ruled the Creole was subject to local laws. Slavery had been abolished in Britain by the British Emancipation Act of 1803, which ended slavery within the British empire.

Chinatown: Understanding Its Impact And Origin

Table of Contents

This is an opening statement

The beginning of Chinatown is a subject of much debate. Many cities in the United States have a Chinatown that has roots as far back as the 19th century when many Chinese immigrants moved to the US to seek out economic opportunities. The earliest Chinatowns were located in the West Coast of the United States, but over time, Chinatowns were established in other cities across the country.

Chinatowns All Over the Globe

The Different Chinatowns of the Philippines

Chinatown’s Economic Impact

In conclusion,

Citing sources

An opening

The present-day flow of migrants from China to other countries is much more focused than that of the colonial age. The current migration to Chinatowns and establishment of them are made up of manual labor migrants. These migrants are often accompanied with entrepreneurs, skilled professionals, students, and political refugees.

Three Chinese immigrants arrived in San Francisco in 1848, and that was the beginning of Chinese immigration. Three years later, 323 Chinese immigrated. In 1850, another 450 Chinese immigrated to San Francisco. The four main groups of Chinese immigrants were sorted by their ethnicity and dialect. An organization was established to assist the family with a growing Chinese population. Their lineage was the basis of their association and clan, which strengthened their relationship. They share an intimacy and trust that strengthens the symbolic family structure. Chinatown is also the center of economic influence. However, political considerations play a significant role in spreading this influence to the economy. Trades in certain industries require approval from the government. De Castro (2007, cited Figueroa 2016, economics) highlighted that China’s progressively closer monetary relations and the Philippines’ hunger for innovation have made it possible for China to influence the Philippines’ business and government affairs. China is the Philippines’ greatest exchanging partner. But, Hong Kong belongs to China. China and the Philippines exchange grew from $18 million in 2005 to $30 Billion in 2007. The impact of the Chinese language can be seen in the Mindanao financial and structural housing. This relationship with Mindanao’s Chinese still has problems. Mindanao’s Chinese mestizos are searching for a solution. Figueroa (2016) states that Chinese and Chinese Mestizos were exploiters who priced goods in a discriminatory manner, leaving tribesmen with large debts, and thus, exploited the illiterate. Whole settlements had to be evacuated when Chinese retailers arrived to collect payments. Father Urios, who was in Davao at the time, mentioned that a Chinese had “donated finished clothes and materials for other tailors.” Mati, meanwhile, also shared this sentiment. Manuel Rosello. SJ. paid P50 to each of the three travelers in his Oct. 31 1898 letter from Vera de Moncayo. These statements indicate that Filipinos at that time had mixed feelings about Chinese immigrants to the Philippines. The history of the gift may also show this. The Chinese are not only an influence on the Philippines’ economy and society, but they also have an impact on the Philippines’ social and cultural aspects. To fully understand the significance of Chinatowns, we need to conduct research on the topic. The following is the research:

Where did Chinatown come from?

What is Chinatown’s economic impact?

The Origin of ChinatownChinatown refers to a place or area that is heavily populated with Chinese people. These districts can be found in many countries around the globe. They come from all over the world, including East Asia, Southeast Asia and North America. These communities were made up mainly of Chinese immigrants who had married locals. As the population of Chinese grows, they are able to build their own community called “Chinatown”. This town was home to both Chinese and local traders. Nearly every major city in the Philippines has its own Chinatown. Binondo City, Manila however, is unique. Chinese merchants traded the Philippines with imports from central Luzon and North Manila. They were able to provide Spanish services in the Philippines. In 1594, Manila Chinatown was established. The Spaniards gave it to the Catholic baptized Chinese, who were located in the vicinity of Intramuros. Non Christian Chinese lived beyond the walled city. After the original Chinatown was destroyed, it was rebuilt and allowed for non-Christian Chinese to enter Binondo in 1790. Enrique Soriano from claims that this Chinatown, founded in 1594, was constructed by Chinese-Filipinas. The Philippines was already full of Chinese traders and their goods before the Spanish arrived.

The expulsion of all Chinese structures in the Philippines was ordered by a royal decree. Governor Dasmarinas recognized that Manila, Spain’s most important settlement, wanted the Chinese to remain for its financial offerings. They are both economically important for the Philippines and Spain’s hope of capturing the lucrative Chinese markets. While the colonial authorities once feared the Chinese invasion, they were able to understand the significance of the Chinese. The Chinese sangleys (from the Philippines Hokkiensionglai which means “frequent visitor”) were harsh within the Parian. They had extortionary taxes and were subject to blatant abuse by the Spaniards. As a sangley, you were considered to be the lowest in Spanish colonial society. Governor-General Luis Perez Dasmarinas was attempting to incite cultural assimilation within the sangley group in 1594. He purchased land from the walled city and gave it to Maghuyop and others. al, 2018). Binondo quickly became a type acculturation center for Spanish Dominican fathers. Binondo was a Chinese settlement that was built on the land of Dasmarinas. This allowed it to be inalienable and tax-free to all non-Chinese. Binondo was a contract that Binondo was to be for Catholic Chinese and mestizo descendants at one point in the seventeenth-century. Chinatown was home to several cathedrals. The Chinese language, which has undergone significant transformations, also enjoyed special privileges that allowed them to avoid the Spanish policy’s consequences. The indulto en comercio was repealed by the Spanish government in 1844. It prohibited Spanish officers from trading. This removed the last impediment to the mestizo’s dominance in global commerce. Spanish coverage helped to remove any barriers that prevented Chinese immigrants and residents from coming to the Philippines. The Philippines should allow Chinese to come to the country without any restrictions on their numbers or where they might reside. In the Philippines, there were nearly 100,000 Chinese citizens by 1880. The Different Established Chinese Towns Around the Globe Chinatown denotes the European society’s arbitrary spatial boundaries that allow them to distinguish their territory from the Chinese. Chinatown is believed to have been created by White Western society during the late 19th Century. Scholars and media alike have been discussing the People’s Republic of China’s (PRC’s) immense popularity and growth in economic terms. Manhattan Chinatown is considered the largest and oldest Chinese community in East America. It has seen changes like expansion, population growth, and real estate development. Because it is located near the top-rated financial districts, it has seen decades of renovation and redevelopment. You can find many exotic pleasures in Chinatowns. You might find Chinese-speaking people, Cantonese speakers, Chinese products and Chinese food. Chinatowns have been a distinct ethnic enclave since 1820s. They can be found in the center of major cities as the point of entry for Chinese-American immigrants. They can be seen as an addition to American cities’ “patchwork”, and they play a key role in bridging China-America. Chinatowns across the Philippines Many of these Chinatowns are still around today and can be relied upon to provide authentic Chinese cuisine and culture. These communities are found in these cities only in the Philippines.’s article states that Binondo (Malaysian) is the “little China” and was established back in 1594 to house Chinese settlers. This Chinatown is known for its unique urban adventures and food hunting. According to The Manila Times, Quezon City’s Chinatown was created in 2005 with the approval of the City Council. Chinatown was established in Quezon by the Banawe Street, which is the site of development and the emergence Filipino-Chinese business. Two arches are the landmarks of the new Chinatown. Previously, it was known as Sta Mesa Heights subdivision. Iznart Street, J.M. The streets of Iznart, J.M. According to an arch of friendship between Filipinos and Chinese was built in honor of the occasion. Davao, a city in the Philippines, is considered the oldest Chinatown. It spans 44 hectares. It also includes the Arch of Friendship. The Unity Arch, Arch of Peace, Arch of Peace, and Prosperity Arch. Davao Chinatown is unique in having its own seaport, Sta Ana Wharf. According to an article in SUNSTAR Philippine, the Davao City Chinatown was designated as a major tourist location in Davao. A Memorandum of Agreement has been signed by both the Davao City Chinatown Development Council of (DCCDC) with the sponsor bank Banco de Oro. The latter received a 3.5m “one-time sponsorship”. It is now known for being a center for Flipino and Chinese business establishments. This can be seen in the shops and malls. In 2003, Rodrigo Roa Duterte issued an Executive Order declaring Barangay 27C-C and Barangay 30,C as Davao City Chinatown. The DCCDC was created to formulate and implement policies regarding the historical, commercial, and economic significance of the area. According to PressReader.Com a Davao City subdivision is called Uyanguren. It’s also known by the Ramon Magsaysay Avenue. Jose Cruz Maria Ibarzabal y Oyanguren was a Spanish judge who conquered Datu Bago. The name Uyanguren is his. He is from Villa de Bergara in Guipozcoa, Spain. He was exiled from Guam because of his political views, but was quickly transferred in the Philippines. He was elected the first governor in Davao City (now Nueva Vergara). After the passage of Resolution No. After the approval of resolution No. It is the city with the greatest cultural diversity in Davao. It is well-known for being affordable and the best place to bargain for products. The arch at Unity, the most grandiose arch in Davao is where you can find malls such as the NCCC and DCLA plazas or shopping centers. Chinatownoloy’s Economic Impact: There are currently 35 Chinatowns located in 19 countries. There are 16 Chinesetowns across Asia, 12 European Chinatowns and 7 American Chinatowns. Most Chinatowns have archways as their most popular sight. This tells you much about the Chinese population and their lives. EdgeDavao (2015) reports that a proposal for a night market is being considered, similar to the one in Roxas avenue. Steve Arquiza, Davao metropolitan Chinatown Development Council (DCCDC), said Monday that they want R. Magsaysay Street and adjacent roads to become a spot where Chinese products and ingredients can be highlighted. This will help attract more visitors to the city. Arquiza stated that they wanted to sell Chinatown’s night market because the area is considered dead once it gets dark. While he did clarify that the idea remains with the technical operating committee, they also plan to allocate open space for Chinese hawker-eating places like Singapore and Malaysia. Councilor Al Ryan Alejandre of the Davao Metropolis Council revealed plans to pass an ordinance which would require that every establishment in Chinatown have a Chinese topic Facade. Mayor Sara Duterte Carpio had signed a government decree that could have established a CDC. This was to manage the development plans for the large number of Chinatown homes in the first districts. The committee will oversee the beautification of the area and ensure that it is developed in conjunction with its category. Arquiza stated that Chinatown was not just an enterprise area, but also a quarter for tourism development. Currently, the CDC has been holding a series of conferences with the community to make plans, develop the office, and assess the needs of Chinatown. Arquiza stated that the technical working institution hopes to complete the process in order to continue the public consultation. He also said that he hopes to submit a draft thought before the end of Sara’s term in 2019 as the metropolis mayor. He stated that he wanted to create policy environments that would allow private sectors to expand the area in conjunction to the Chinatown subject.

Anderson (1990) outlines the details of the project. It included the construction of four arches’ across Little Bourke Street, as well twenty clusters ‘Chinese-style lantern lamps’. Premier R. Hamer also agreed that it was appropriate to’recognize the Chinese community by creating a Chinese village. In a letter to Walker asking for support from the Minister, Chinatown assured Walker that ‘Chinatown is supported to the hilt.’ Within months, it had also committed to receiving a $100,000 grant. Anderson (1990) states that the Chinatown redevelopment plans are primarily focused on the social construction and integration of ‘Chinese’ culture into the area. The project’s aim is, according to Melbourne City Clerk: ‘to create an atmosphere that is distinctively Chinatown.’ This will be a place where the Chinese feel comfortable with it. The pagodas will be’replicas for traditional Chinese entrances’, so giving the area a Chinese identity,’ stated Mr T. Chu, a Melbourne University architecture, at a November 1975 meeting. The transfer of Chinese financial resources to China by modern Chinese migrants is not considered a break from China’s history of migration. The Chinese immigrant from China has been loyal to their Chinese roots since the 19th century. They pledge their political allegiance to their new country for different reasons. However, only a small portion of remittances went to China for productive investment. In order to migrate from China, individuals were able to take advantage of low prices for goods and business opportunities. Chinese migrants are more likely to migrate if they have the ability to start and run their own business in their host country. Contemporary migration is a result of China’s status as the world’s largest producer of low-quality and cheap goods. Global capitalism and local structural change have caused contemporary Chinese migrants to migrate to diverse locations. Males and females no longer stay in the Chinatown area, but travel all over the world. The current Chinese are more focused than the Chinese who moved to developed and large cities. Chinese have a new way of pursuing their cultural, economic and political interests that transcends the borders and boundaries of nations. Chinatown is vital for the Asian population because they must occasionally buy Asian ingredients from Chinatown’s food markets. These includes their visitation of Asian clinics and take Traditional Chinese Medicines, worshipping in Buddha temples, enjoying Asian food with friends and relatives in Chinatown restaurants (having-dinner-together as an important activity for social networking). ConclusionDavao has many established infrastructures and buildings that make it one of the most populated cities in Mindanao. This is a sign of the city’s progress, which has opened up new possibilities. The Chinatown is a popular spot in Davao. Here, people can find the items they are looking for at a reasonable price. Davao Chinatown also known under the name Mindanao Chinatown is home of many establishments. Most of them are owned and managed by Chinese Filipinos. To sum up, Chinatown plays an important role in the country’s economy. The relationship between Mindanaons and the Chinese, particularly Davao City, developed long ago. These relationships are more aggressive in economic terms. China’s contribution to Davao City’s economic growth and partnership development is a result. They have a significant impact on the economic side of the city’s economy. Chinatown was a key player in the country’s development. They opened up job opportunities, which helped many people. The government cannot ignore the fact that the fastest growing Chinese businesses are one of the largest contributors to tax. Chinatown, thanks to the entrepreneurial skills of Chinese people, has been the centre of growth in major cities and towns. It is obvious that four prominent Philippine cities were home to Chinatowns. Each one experienced rapid growth and development. Sources

Maghuyop R., Gallardo T. M., Ruiz G., Babac V., Gallinero W. (2018). Jose Rizal’s Life and Works. Mutya Publishing House Inc., Malabon City (Philippines).

Ahmadzadeh S. (2014). Cultural Tourism and the preservation of Binondo’s Chinese Built Heritage. The University of Santo Tomas is located in Manila. Retrieved from:

Anderson, K. 1990. Chinatown Reoriented. Critical Analysis of Redevelopment Projects in a Melbourne-Sydney Enclave. Australian Geographical Studies, 18(2): 137–154. Retrieved from:

Chung S.S. (2008). The Study of Chinatown in London: Urban Artifice or Impact? The Bartlett School of Graduate Studies at University College London.

Figueroa, A.V. (2016). The Chinese Tie-In. Retrieved May 9, 2019, from EdgeDavao:

Quan, J. (1996). San Francisco’s Chinatown. An architectural history and urban planning history. Retrieve from;jsessionid=4D1FD4F766A9AF40C4384FA1DF3D9D4E?sequence=1

Thuno,M. (2007). Beyond Chinatown : New Chinese Migrations and Global Expansion.NIAS Press NIAS – Nordic Institute of Asian Studies of China.

Wickberg (1964) suggested that… The Chinese Mestizo and Philippine History. In Southeast Asian History 5(1), authors discuss topics such as the history of the region, with a focus on the politics and culture of the area from the past to the present. The journal contains articles from various perspectives, spanning 62 to 100 pages in length.

Xu, N. (2013). The History of Planning: Why Chinatown was gentrified later than other Downtown Manhattan communities. Retrieved from:

Dehumanization In The Book ‘Night’ By Elie Wiesel

“Night,” Elie Wiesel’s book tells the story of a young boy suffering from loss, torture, abuse, dehumanization. A person is made inhuman by losing the human qualities that make him or her unique. These tragic events can alter their morality and character. This could be the cause of their cruel and inhumane treatment. They are not developed people with animal-like characteristics. This is what they need to survive in such conditions.

Shaving prisoners’ hair could be a way to dehumanize them. In some cases, hair can make you feel better about yourself. This would be more harmful for women than for men. Women are known to have long and beautiful hair during this period. Your hair will make you appear more animal-like. It’s almost like shearing sheep. They used hair to make wigs and clothes. People feel more human if they have hair. The camps were full of prisoners, and they were given tattoos if they made it through selection. Eli was the one who got the number A-7113. He was not Eli anymore. To torture, enslave/kill a prisoner it is much easier to take someone’s last name. Prisoners are more hurt if they are treated as animals or as nothing.

The prisoner were informed that they were going on vacation. They packed all the food, clothing, shoes, and games that they would take on vacation in their suitcases. They found out they were not headed for vacation; they were going to be sent to death or as slaves to Nazis. They were packed into cattle cars to be taken to their destination. They quickly got out of the car and took their bags with them. They were sent to selection, where they were made to be fit and healthy. Older children, women and children were sent to the end. Only those who worked were allowed to put on one pair striped shirt. Due to the SS taking away all their personal belongings, including gold teeth, the SS officers made it impossible for prisoners to feel self-actualized.

The Nazis wouldn’t have been happy with this, but Jews were subjected to significant dehumanization. This included the loss or hair, clothing, and name. In many ways, the Holocaust caused many of the Jews to suffer. These included losing loved ones or being separated from family members, and getting to the point where they feel that death is their only option. There were many contributing factors to the Jew’s suffering during World War II, but dehumanization is the worst.

The Louisiana Purchase And Its Role For America

In 1803, the North Americans did the most important business in history by purchasing the Territory of Louisiana from Napoleon. US $ 15,000,000 (or 220 millions today) was paid for a territory bigger than Mexico. This territory is fed by a more than 3,000,000 km2 basin and is almost entirely flat. It was the perfect place for someone looking for a vast area with huge potential to grow and rear livestock. The quality is similar to that of the Ukraine’s black land, but it is 5 times greater. The Americans became scared of the enormous lottery and started to accept their fate.

The US continental territory is roughly a rectangle that is longer than it is wide. A tail can be found in the lower left corner. It is crossed by two mountain ranges: the Rockies on one side and the Appalachian Mountains the other. The Mississippi River basin is a huge extension that is almost flat and has a lot of water. It is located near New Orleans and is almost at the border with Canada. There was also the Louisiana Territory. Its right limit was the Mississippi. The Rocallosas was to its left. Maybe you’ve traveled to Mexico and seen miles and kilometers of cultivated land. This is possible because the water from the Calles Dam in our state can be used. However, most crops are grown with water. Sinaloa has seen the Sierra Madre Occidental rains used, and a series dams have been built to turn the area green. Google Earth lets you view the entire Mississippi region from the sky. Aguascalientes’ taste lasts approximately 40 km, Sinaloa’s tastes last about 400 km, while the Mississippi’s lasts for 3700km. It is simply the river’s width and water volume. The river throws 4502m3/second into a sea on a day of low flows, and 86719m3/second on a good one. The capacity of the Calles Dam is 340 million cubic meters. It has never been fully filled. The dam would fill in in just 21 hours if the Mississippi water was used to flood the sea. It would then fill in in approximately 1 hour and 10 minutes if the dam were filled with good days. These parameters are why the US was chosen to be the country that bought Louisiana. Another factor, not yet discovered in Mexico, is that the Mississippi has a near-zero slope. Its 3700 km length means that it moves on a nearly flat terrain. English, Dutch, German and Dutch settlers arrived in this area from the 17th Century. But, there was a small region between the Appalachian Mountains & the Atlantic Ocean. From the beginning of the colony, explorers traveled west to cross the Appalachians, reaching the Mississippi River. They were granted the responsibility of colonizing the south (towards Florida) as well as the portion of land between Mississippi and the Appalachians. Because the land was not well-known or could be identified, this river became the natural border between the United States of America and “other countries”. The Spaniards might have tried to aggressively colonize this area. However, it proved more profitable to extract silver mines from New Spain. In the end, the territories to their north were left unexplored. They were still present in Florida, New Orleans and other upstream areas. Instead, the French took over North America, Canada.

They were very fortunate indeed. The end of any European war results in a new distribution of spoils. France gives Spain the West Bank of the Mississippi, while France gives England the lands on the East side of the Mississippi. Everything that was English on the eastern border became part United States once Independence was completed in 1783. However, the West Bank of the Mississippi was given by France to Spain, who was already in decline and could not control the region. The United States received the area as a gift in the future. They had a few years to enjoy the territory without any European powers. Meanwhile, the United States grew and advanced in colonization, reaching the Mississippi. French Louisiana was Spanish for 40 years. This is how it came to be in 1800. Napoleon was the First Consul and forced the Spaniards into returning Louisiana to France.

Thomas Jefferson was then the president of America. He was the author of the Declaration of Independence and was a diplomat to France. He also had strong friendships with France so was well-informed about European affairs. He was horrified to learn of the Spanish treaty that ceded French Louisiana from Spain to France. He and his associates realized that the situation would be completely different if France had Canadian interests and began to explore what they could do.

The Americans were again favored by geography. Napoleon couldn’t directly launch troops or people to the Mississippi. This was because the Mississippi was far away. But the United States could use as a base a French-owned island in the West Indies. It had only recently been freed from slave revolt. It was Haiti. Napoleon was able send a force containing 20,000 men and retake it as its base for operations in America. The French soldiers were unable to confront the militia of the black inhabitants, and things started to go according to Napoleon’s plan until the yellow fever erupted and destroyed the French army. France was at war against England by the time it was over. Napoleon started to lose sight of his worldly dreams and begin to think about Louisiana.

In 1800, the Mississippi was already an important part of American commerce. The Mississippi channel carried merchandise to New Orleans from its cities. This city was Spanish and had a treaty that permitted merchants to use the port of the Mississippi as a warehouse. However, the Spanish governor banned American goods deposit in 1801.

Jefferson found a simple solution to the problem. He would need to make the purchase to France. His agents were to negotiate with Napoleon. Napoleon had already looked into the matter and came up with the following conclusions.

France couldn’t colonize or defend Louisiana.

It was therefore a wasteful property

You needed to get rid it as soon as possible

It would be best to sell it the United States, as they are a friend of the country, and not England, who were at war with them.

The French counterproposal to acquire all of Louisiana was presented by Jefferson’s envoys when they tried to purchase New Orleans. The representatives were caught in a dilemma because they didn’t have the power. But they reasoned they wouldn’t get another chance.

After receiving this news, the president realized that he had accomplished a great deal. He chose to accept it and was ready to deal with his Federalist Party opponents. The United States made an incredible deal. Jefferson’s opposition fell on him and accused him of violating Constitution. He had no law authorizing the president of buying territory from another nation. Jefferson was already hypocritical that he supported strict adherence with the Constitution. This meant that the entire operation would be stuck in Congress. It was approved by 2 votes.

The United States acquired land with enormous potential for agriculture. Psychologically, it was the removal of a barrier that stopped them moving westward. It also convinced the Americans that they were no longer a nation founded by European settlers and that they are now a continental force. Although there are many factors, I believe that the purchase was the single most important factor in the United States’ greatness. Napoleon, a brilliant thinker who could see the future, stated that the sale had created a nation, which would eventually be humiliated by Great Britain. However, because the United States works as allies with England, this comparison of power is embarrassing for the small of the two.

Jurists examined this purchase from many angles and concluded it was illegal. Napoleon did in fact force Spain to hand over the territory. There is also a problem, as if Napoleon is allowed to sell any Spanish territories that are still under his control, it would be illegal. However, considering that Louisiana is French, Napoleon in 1803 was not more than a First Consul. He had no power to sell any parts of France and Jefferson was not authorized to purchase it. While there were many disputes about the operation, no country was able to raise its voice, show greater rights, or support the other with its weapons. My harvest raises the legal question: Did Europeans have the right to win New World?

The Role Of Historiography In History Studies

History is a story that tells a story. Historiography is a collection of historical research on a subject. Historiography refers to the telling of history. It requires careful analysis of multiple sources. It is simply the history and analysis of history. Historiographical essays generally focus on one topic. You can see the world from many perspectives. Sometimes, these perspectives are conflicting. It eventually helps you understand the situation.

Historiographers work to improve our understanding of the past by reconstructing it. Historiographers’ methods are relatively new and became popular and well-known in the 19th and 20th centuries. This was the time when history became a legitimate academic field and people began writing about science. Therefore, it is assumed that keeping historical records is an inherent human trait. It is because before this time, history was never a significant subject for humans for education or any other purpose for that matter, apart from texts and records based on subjects like philosophy, religion or other arts like poetry.Historiographers ask many questions. They examine the authenticity and credibility, and consider the agendas they might have. They look at where the writer is from and what their experiences were like when they wrote the accounts. They must also examine if the historian’s personal characteristics could have an impact on their view or agenda. They should also consider their gender, age or sexual orientation. It is also important for you to see what their primary sources and secondary information were. This will help you determine if your perspective could be being altered in any way. The literature must be free of prejudice, i.e. If the historian has overlooked any important details or if it creates a bias for the reader.

A historiographer may have a deep-seated distrust of the world. It is well-known that historians have an underlying bias or agenda. There is also a chance that their methods of interpretation and sources of information could be influenced by deeper beliefs or prove certain pre-existing ideas. History is not an objective subject, but rather a collection of the historian’s beliefs. Only the dates and events can be considered objective. The historian is free to decide how they interpret or perceive those facts in the mind and in writing. If we read a piece written by a historian, then we are actually reading the historical interpretation of facts and events. A historiographer is responsible for gathering these interpretations and analyzing the situation.

Storytelling is as old as humanity itself. This is an effective way to communicate and the stories are passed on to future generations. A formal, systematic study of historical texts and historiography would make an education system more effective. We would learn to analyze situations ourselves and not just rely on the literature. Studying history through the lens of historiography is a good way to get a different perspective on the world.

The Role Of The Roman Senate In The Disintegration Of Relations Between Caesar And Pompey

This paper examines the role of the Roman Senate during the disintegration in relations between Julius Caesar, Pompeius Magus (Pompey). Caesar and Pompey formed an alliance with Marcus Crassus in 60 BCE to pool their talents to overthrow the Senate and take control of Rome. The First Triumvirate, or the First Triumvirate as it was also called, relied on the cooperation of the three men to win the favor of the Senate. The relationship between the men was further strengthened when Pompey married Julia in 59 BCE. Caesar and Pompey were in an intense power struggle five years later. The First Triumvirate’s manipulation of the senate had been able to create a wedge between them.

Caesar and Pompey shared the goal to be the greatest man in Rome. They took different paths towards that end. Pompey was the son of a wealthy family. His father was also a member in the senate. He joined the military as a seventeen-year-old. Pompey was twenty-years-old when Pompey’s father died. Pompey left behind a lot of property as well as the allegiance to his father’s men. Pompey used his inherited military to gain favor from powerful politicians in Rome. Julius Caesar was not born into the same family as Caesar. Although noble, the Julii did not have much political influence. Caesar, like Pompey lost his father early in life, but Caesar’s father didn’t have the property or loyal troops to leave his son. Caesar married Cornelia. Cornelia was the daughter of Cinna who was a four-year-old consul. Caesar saw the marriage to Cornelia as a path towards political glory. Both Caesars and Pompey ended up in prominent political office. The Senate made the decision about who to back for peace in Rome. Rome was already involved in Civil Wars long before Caesar and Pompey waged war against each others. Sulla’s Second Civil War was one of the major factors in shaping Caesar and Pompey’s lives. In 83 BCE, the war began. Two large parties in the roman senate waged constant war against each other. Lucius Sulla, who initially fought against Lucius Cinna, was now fighting with Gaius Marius, the younger. Marius, and his side were called the populares. Sulla and his side were known as the Causa Novitatis, or nobility. Sulla’s followers were known as the optimate senators. Old school, they preferred the changes they believed would make Rome more attractive to the nobles. Sulla was previously defeated and exiled to Rome. When Cinna died, Sulla rebuilt his army and sought help from Pompey. Pompey had a legion that he controlled, and their combined men amounted to nearly fifty thousand. Sulla led his men to Rome and met with opposing forces on Mount Tifata. The opposing side had many soldiers, but they were scattered elsewhere when the attack occurred. Sulla was able win this battle with seventy soldiers, while Marius lost six thousand. The Marians were forced further to Capua after the fight. Sulla was able quickly to capture Rome. Julius Caesar had been married to Lucius Cinna. This was a leader of the Populars at that time.

The family of Julian was divided over which senatorial faction it should support in the civil wars that followed. Marius had led the popular group, which included Julius Caesar. Marius had killed other Julians who supported the optimates a few years before. Julius father died slightly before Julius became the head his house. Julius could claim he was part the Julians that supported Sulla-led optimates, but instead he preferred to be on the side with the Populars. He divorced his planned marriage to Cornelia, which he had been planning since birth. Cornelia was the daughter of Cinna, a prominent member of society. Sulla created a list of names for the Forum upon his return from Rome. Sulla placed a bounty of fifty dollars on any man whose name was on the list. His name didn’t appear on the list because he wasn’t important enough to be considered a threat. But Sulla knew about Caesar. Caesar was summoned and asked to meet with him. He said he shouldn’t marry Cornelia and should divorce her. Caesar refused and began his journey hiding from the optimates. Sulla did not outlaw the young Caesar, but was actually impressed by him during their meeting. Caesar ran. Sulla was convinced by one of his uncles who is an Optimate. Sulla said that Caesar may live to regret it. But, he should also remember that he may one day endanger the cause that Sulla and I support. This Caesar is worth six Marius.

Caesar knew he wanted political control and began the path to obtaining it. He joined military to increase his authority and credibility. He traveled to Asia to fight for Sulla’s cause. Caesar quickly gained the trust and confidence of his commander and was appointed his emissary. Caesar was presented with a civic crown by his commanding officer following the Siege of Mitylene. This award is usually given to citizens who save the lives of Roman citizens. Due to the Civil War’s deaths, Sulla did not have many senators at that time. According to Livy Sulla made every man who was awarded a civic Crown, a senator. Caesar, who had been a prosecutor for a provincial governor after Sulla’s passing in 78, returned to Rome to assist in his prosecution. This was common among young Romans seeking to climb the political ranks. Caesar lost the matter, but performed admirably. He was also known for his great public speaking skills.

The Sullan constitution gave priests the power to select priests. Caesar was considered a good choice since he had complied with Sulla’s decisions over the past decade. Caesar was elected as a member of the college for pontifices. Caesar quickly proved that the priesthood was wrong when he began to promote the ideas and opinions of the popular senators. Caesar was the military-tribune. Caesar had met Pompey after he was promoted to the consulship. Caesar and Pompey had formed one of Roman history’s most powerful relationships.

The Senate was controlled by the majority of optimists for many decades after Sulla’s conquer. Caesar and Pompey then get involved to pursue their goals beyond those of the optimate senators. The optimates regarded four of those leaders as populars. Caesar and Pompey were two of these leaders. The one the optimists feared the most was Pompey. Pompey used his loyal military first to become the ruler of Sulla, and then later in various military operations. After his consulship, the optimates attempted to expel Pompey. Pompey managed to maintain his interests within the Senate through his tribunes. Pompey had Cicero, a prominent senator, who was trying to win him favor by the age of 66. Pompey had earned the respect of Asia’s knights. Cicero then gave Pompey military command to fight the Mithridates. Pompey was so powerful, Cicero agreed to help defend Manilius. His immense power caused fear among the senators. Caesar was a popular, and not Pompey. He was the only leader to have the Marian connection. He supported popular laws and glorified Marius, whom his family was a supporter of in Marius’s lifetime. Caesar passed a bill that allowed the public to again elect priests. This increased Caesar’s popularity and he was elected Pontifex Maximus. The optimates were humiliated by this victory. Pompey and Caesar combined were able teetering on the wrong side of public opinion.

Caesar, who was returning from Spain’s governorship, thought he would be a consul. A law required that Caesar be present to declare his desire for the consulship. Caesar was forced to surrender his victory by coming to Rome to declare his candidacy. He was a strong and likely to win. Caesar enjoyed the support of Pompey, the Marians and his men as well as money to bribe others with. Caesar was chosen to be consul along with Bibulus the optimate. The senate was still controlled by the optimates. This partnership, known as the First Triumvirate between Caesar and Pompey and Crassus, led to the creation of an alliance known as the First Triumvirate. Caesar would introduce bills that would support the agendas of both Caesar and Pompey. Caesar would present the law as a First Triumvirate strategy. Pompey and Crassus then would publicly support the bill. Pompey’s soldiers used force to stop any senator from opposing the bill. The optimates did everything possible to stop Caesar enacting more laws. But, combined with Pompey, they were too powerful, passing many bills swiftly by threat of violence. Cato was Caesar’s only hope to stop Caesar. Caesar made Cato go away. Cato was allowed to go only because Cato wasn’t supported by the public. Cato wouldn’t appeal the arrest. Caesar managed to pass through one of his Tributes a bill changing the requirement that consuls accept insignificant roles following their consulship. Caesar was given a command in Cisalpine Gul and Illyricum for five years. Pompey even coerced the senate to give Caesar Transalpine Gaul soon after. Pompey convinced senate that action would likely be taken in Gaul because of the Helvetti. Pompey said to the senate that it would have been better to have only one governor for Transalpine Gaul.

Caesar continued to interfere in political affairs in the 58 BCE. It was then that it appeared likely that the Roman people would turn against him. Then he moved to Gaul. Caesar would have a strong and powerful army to his name in Gaul. Caesar would be close to Rome, allowing him to influence the political process if necessary. Caesar visited Gaul almost immediately and was allowed to display his military power. Caesar sent two legions of Cisalpine men to train and destroyed a bridge the Helvetti needed in order to migrate. He defeated the Helvetti and made them an ally to the Romans. Caesar was a man of great ambition and military talent during his time at Gaul. Caesar tried to invade Britain, an area which the Romans never had control over before. Caesar was unsuccessful because of poor harvests. However, he was successful in securing some southerly land until winter. Caesar was also confronted with unrest by the Germanic tribes many times during his stay. Each time, he was able fight back and restore peace to the region. Caesar was growing in popularity in Rome, so he was sending back rewards from his victories. This wealth was used by Caesar to build his army and to bribe the most important people in Rome. He also used this time to practice his army.

Caesar was in Gaul. Pompey continued to Rome, where he found himself working with optimists. Pompey was often made suggestions by senators to align with them. Some suggested that he should break his bonds with Caesar and marry Julia, Caesar’s child. Pompey doesn’t associate with these senators. He instead joins another group that is pushing for the end of Cicero’s exile. Pompey had been a partner in Cicero’s past, so it seemed sensible to help him get back to Rome. Pompey was accompanied by a large group of his soldiers to the forum. This allowed them to pass the law that called for Cicero’s returning. Cicero was then able to use the relationship he had with Pompey in order to restore Pompey’s relations with the senator. Pompey was given the responsibility of all trading and ports. This position gave him power over the distribution of food. Caesar would have a meeting with Pompey, Crassus and Luca to discuss the possibility of Crassus and Pompey becoming consuls in 55 CE. Caesar agreed that a large portion of his men would vote for Crassus and Pompey in Rome, under the condition that Crassus would continue his control over Illycrium (Gaul) for five years. This was not a popular decision among Rome’s leaders, but Cato stood up to challenge it. Crassus, Pompey and other intimidators became the consuls in 55 BCE. They extended Caesar’s Gaul territory and gave Caesar provinces. Crassus died in Syria while Pompey was granted Spain and Africa. Pompey didn’t go to his provincials and stayed in Rome with his wife. Julia, Pompey’s wife, died shortly after he gave birth to his second child. This broke down the union between Caesar & Pompey.

Rome became more violent in the years that followed and was at the edge of Civil War. To restore peace in the region, it was suggested that Pompey would be made solely consul. This did not take place, but it was close the year after 52 war, when Milo, a candidate for consul, killed Clodius. Pompey, with the assistance of Cato (an ex-enemy), would become the sole consul in Rome. Pompey made the most of his role as sole consul by passing laws that increased his power and allowed him to purchase more soldiers for his region. Some, however, were against Caesar’s actions. They argued Caesar was fighting the empire as well and should receive the same rewards or payments as Pompey.

Caesar was able to keep Rome close and would send his troops to vote for him. He also had many members of the Senate bribed. Caesar wanted to be a consul in Gaul and an extension, but he was unable to return home to Rome so long as his army was still there. Pompey became concerned at Caesar’s dominance over the Roman high-ranking officers and was worried. Pompey demanded Caesar return the soldiers he had borrowed him. Some officers informed Pompey that Caesar wasn’t the Roman god, but that Pompey was. Pompey was convinced Caesar wasn’t a threat by the officers. Caesar and Pompey weren’t useful anymore, but the senators were split over who they should support.

Each side wanted the other’s army to be taken out, but couldn’t agree on the best way forward. Caesar would be leaving Gaul in November 50 BCE, but the senators could not agree. Caesar, who remained in Gaul in 49 BC, felt wronged and assembled his army to cross Rubicon. He knew it would ignite another war. Caesar shouted “Let die be cast!” as his army crossed Rubicon. This officially started his war against Rome. Because Pompey was the most powerful army they could imagine, the optimate senators turned their attention to him in order to protect Rome from Caesar. Pompey and his men were originally supposed to defend Rome. Caesar was not able to be tracked. Caesar refused to accept their last-ditch deal and Pompey, along with the optimate senators, were forced from Rome. Caesar would win the war and become the closest Rome had ever seen to an Emperor since the Republic began.

The senate was an important part of the rise to power of Caesar and Pompey. Both Caesar as well as Pompey were considered populars, and the optimate society forced them together to reach power and wealth. Without the support of each other, it is unlikely that either one will be able to hold the sole consulship or have enough military power and money for the split of the senate. The optimists considered Pompey the lesser evil and decided to follow his lead, while Caesar convinced other senators. The civil war that erupted after the agreement reached by the Senate would have been avoided if it had.

Causes And Effects Of John Proctor And Abigail Williams’ Affair

The Crucible is an adaptation of Arthur Miller’s true story. It takes place 1692, in Salem, Massachusetts. This small village was the scene of witch trials that began due to a series. There are many twists and turns in the story that lead to Salem’s decrepit end. Proctor starts the story by having an affair, at seventeen years old, with Abigail Williams. In order to maintain his status, Proctor intends to keep his dirty deeds secret. Abigail is told by John that he will forget about it and that he won’t be coming to visit him again. Proctor sees the problem in keeping his affair covered up until Elizabeth and the other Salem witch trial suspects are indicted. To save Elizabeth, Proctor discovers that Abigail had all of this power. Proctor finally admits to his sin (Miller 110). Proctor doesn’t give Abigail any name, but he begins to describe his feelings towards her. Proctor attempts another attempt. Proctor starts crying and admits embarrassment. (Miller 110). This confession is made to save Elizabeth. John Proctor and Abigail Williams’ affair changed the lives in Salem. Although there are many possible causes, Proctor’s affair with Elizabeth was primarily due to Elizabeth’s ineptness to Proctor. The final act is when Elizabeth and John are discussing possible issues that led to their affair. She mentions that she has “sins of my own,” and that it is necessary for Elizabeth to be cold to provoke lechery. Perhaps this refers to Elizabeth being a strict, cold woman. She acknowledges that she was not able to tell her love how she wanted, because the house was too cold.

Elizabeth was not openly devoted to John and had difficulty expressing her feelings for him. John may have also been drawn to Abby by Elizabeth’s long-term illness. Abby’s manipulation and opportunist personality, which Abby took advantage to get the things she wanted, was also a factor. Abby wants to marry John. Abby’s anger at Elizabeth for kicking Abby out because of her affair leads to an increased hatred that will eventually lead Abigail and Elizabeth to accuse Elizabeth that she is a witch. Act 1 shows us this. Abby calls Elizabeth an “almost bitter woman”, a lying, cold woman…a gossiping lunatic!” She is angered at Elizabeth for kick-starting her from John’s bed. John enters and Abby tells her, “I’m waiting to you every night,” as she expresses her longing for John. “I marvel how such strong men can let such weakly ill wife decide what they will do.” Abby’s hatred for and envy lead directly to witchcraft accusations. Elizabeth is arrested when she uses the poppet’s needle to accuse Elizabeth. Actually, the whole purpose of the witchcraft accusations was to conceal that Abby had gone into the woods to drink “a charm for killing Goody Proctor.” Miller then arranges the witch hunt so that Abby’s hatred of Elizabeth is the main reason. John and Elizabeth also felt cold and tension as a result of their affair. Act two is seven months later and they still have quarrels over the situation. The whole opening scene shows them awkwardly and stiltfully arguing about the affair. John expresses disappointment at Elizabeth’s treatment and refusal to forgive. Elizabeth also inquires about John entering the town. John thinks not. One final consequence is his hatred of himself. I am not this man, Elizabeth, my honesty is broken; I’m not a good man.” His low self-worth from his sins leads him to confess. Although he does eventually change his mind, he still feels that he cannot pretend integrity at the hangingman’s noose. John Proctor was found guilty of the Abigail affair. This was what caused all the misfortunes in Salem. Abigail was only looking for revenge. Abigail did what she wanted with the Salem girls, and many innocent people were hurt in the process.

The Austro-prussian War (seven Weeks’ War)

The Austro-Prussian War / Seven Weeks War was the war that took place between Prussia and Austria in order to decide the fates and control of Germany. It was also the second major war that resulted in the formation of Germany as one state. It was triggered by rivalries between Prussian and Habsburg monarchies over Germany’s supremacy.

The relationship between Austria and Prussia had been severely damaged over the winter 1865-1866. It would not be necessary to settle the fates of Schleswig or Holstein if there were to be war. Prussia had control over Schleswig, while Austria held Holstein. But also over the question who should take control of Germany. The Prussian government acknowledged that war against Austria was inevitable. The war ended in victory by Prussia which saw the exclusion Austria from Germany. The Treaty of Prague of August 1866 which saw Austria agreeing that Prussia annex Schleswig, Holstein to Prussia, ended the German Confederation. The North German Confederation included all German states north of River main. The Zollverein German customs association was established 1834 under Prussian rule. This idea was raised in 1818 by Prussia, who announced their openness to free trade with other countries. It was a step toward unification of Germany. It was a German-led trading union that allowed trade to flow freely between all German states. The German Confederation was instrumental in unifying Germany. However, the new German States also gained a sense nationalist sentiment for their newly discovered countries and cultures. This was the catalyst for the Zollverein.

The Zollverein was an important German trading union that allowed trade across all German states. This made it possible to quickly share resources between states. This created a sense of nationality by allowing each state to experience its culture. International tariffs were abolished by the Zollverein, which led to higher rates and greater economic growth. Overall, the Zollverein was a larger version of Prussian Customs Union and included far more German states. Otto Von Bismarck Was Born

Because Otto Von Bismarck was responsible for most of the unification efforts in Germany, this was important. He sought to strengthen King Wilhelm I’s status to counter the Liberals in Prussian politics. Bismarck was in fact in charge of King Wilhelm I’s affairs, and he was controlled by him. Bismarck created tensions between France & Prussia that led to the Franco–Prussian war. The French declared war on the Prussians but they won. Wilhelm I was then crowned Emperor of a united Germany. Germany being unified, Wilhelm I was crowned emperor of a united Germany. Bismarck used their domestic power to benefit from it. says that Bismarck engaged in cultural warfare against Catholics (36% of Germany) for much of the 1870s. This included putting parochial school under state control and exiling the Jesuits. Bismarck also created North German Confederation. The North German Confederation consisted of 22 states from northern Germany and the Kingdom of Prussia. It was created in August 1866. Later, it was merged into one state. It gave Germany a constitution.

The Crucial Role Played By The Silk Road In Afro-eurasian History

David Christian, a historian of Russian history and world scholar, proposed an idea on the ecological aspects of the Silk Road’s promotion of trade. Silk Roads and Steppe Roads presents a compelling view of the role the Silk Road played in the establishment and preservation of the unity of Afro-Eurasian history. The Silk Road existed long before ships, trains and aircraft were invented to move goods between different areas. The Silk Road was a network that combined trading routes through Europe, Asia, Africa. This was the first major trade route. Christian’s central claim is that “both civilisation and ecological trades have created a unity that was largely ignored in history.”

Christian’s thesis considers three aspects in order to understand this unity. The silk roads were created in prehistory and their function was changed during the classical age. In addition, the routes have expanded into North Europe in the last thousand-years. Christians believe in a ‘world’ that has a common Afro Eurasian exchange history. This includes religion, culture, goods and people. This is explained by He saying that the Silk Road was a series trans-ecological trades that connected different ecological zones within the Afro Eurasian landmass to create a single system. It was evident that ecological factors were a major factor in deepening trade. Silk roads are built across desert and barren steppes, which were inhabited pastoralists. These ecological borders created demand for trade because people in different environments needed different goods. Most of the goods traded were made on steppe land while some of the agricultural products were exported to steppes. These products demonstrated the importance of trade in the Afroeurasian region.

Christian also states that Silk Roads are natural sea- and land routes that connect agricultural communities. They allow for exchanges of ideas, products, and religion. Christian also views the Steppe roads connecting Eurasian agriculture. These were created by the commercial bartering of goods from pastoral or agricultural regions.

A new understanding of Silk Roads’ history and role shows that the whole Afroeurasian landmass is linked by intricate networks of exchange. This is in contrast to what was thought previously. Christian clearly reminds us of the common history of Afro-Eurasian, despite all its cultural and ecological differences. His explanation that trade took place over steppes and not roads helps us to see that these ecological settlements are still well-off, even though they are far from the main inland cities.

Christian’s thoughts on the Silk Road/Steppe Road have helped me see that many historical views and histories regarding the establishment or continuation of the Silk Road are often misrepresented. Christian’s view that the history of Silk Road is much more complicated than was originally believed, I agree. The Silk Road’s establishment date is not known.

Although the name “Silk Road” was not directly related to the silk trade, it was interesting. Robert Strayer believed that silk roads were used as a way to connect different cultures and economies. Christian’s article contains the most important evidence. Christian explains that Silk Roads were built upon arid steppes. They are desert lands in which Afro-Eurasia’s various regions have exchanged ideas for centuries.

Christian’s article demonstrates that historical facts can be misrepresented and that there is much more to the history. Both Christian’s and Strayer’s ideas are important in understanding the history. Both authors believed that Silk Road was the main route through which many commodities such as silk, gold, and silver were transported and exchanged. Strayer is more concerned with the negative aspects of Silk Road, citing the possibility of disease spreading through traveller contact with animals, foreigners, and people from other hemispheres. Christian, however, is more concerned with the ecological aspects.

Strayer describes the devastating effects that death has had on these regions due to the multitude of diseases that infected them and the large number of deaths that occurred. The bubonic disease, which struck between 534 and 775 BCE, was one of the most fatal diseases. It had devastatingly affected the Mediterranean Sea’s coasts. 9 Christians focused on the ecological issues of the Silk Road and embraced Strayer’s belief that disease spreads because there are unfortunate illnesses. “Afroeurasian communities were ill due to their livestock exchanges and diseases that they shared.”

Strayer’s views about the spread and prevention of diseases are limiting. Christian sees all aspects of the Silk Road as cultural successes, but also recognizes that it was not a major commercial route. While the Silk Road is important historically, it is important to remember that Afro-Eurasian’s entire land mass was connected by intricate networks.


Is the Silk Road the same thing as the Steppe Road, or are they two different routes? The Silk Roads in World History,” Journal of World History 11, No. 1 (Spring 2000): 1-26.

Robert W. Strayer. Ways of the World. 2, From 1500 to Present. 3rd edition. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2016.

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